Installing Structured Cabling: Basic Doís and Doníts

Published: 11th March 2011
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Although the maximum cable length for a Cat 5e/6/7 system is often reported to be 100m, this length is inclusive of patch and drop leads. Cable testers however, when set to perform a 'Basic Link' test, take this into account and you will find that the maximum length is set to either 90m or 94m depending on the standard you are testing to. Also, because the length is measured with a Cable Analyser it is not the physical length of the run but the copper length that is measured. The copper length is longer due to the twists in the cable pairs, so if a run looks like it might be over 85m it would be wise to check it before it is tied up and terminated.





Each outlet cable should be run directly back to the patch cabinet that is one cable per outlet. A transition point or connection box is allowed if necessary, but in practice this can be more trouble than its worth.





Care should be taken when pulling cables in to ensure that they are not kinked or nicked.





Cable routes should be planned to avoid fluorescent light fittings and power cables (exceptions can be made in the case of optical fibre). They should not be run in the same conduit as power, or the same channel of a trunking system, and where they are run parallel to power they must be at least 60mm apart (BS7671-92) . Crossing power cables is allowed but it must be at right angles, and some form of bridge should be used.





A means of supporting the cables should be installed such as cable tray, catenary wire or cable tie fixings, tying cables to ceiling hangers is not permitted. Cables should be tied at a minimum of 500mm intervals on horizontal runs and more frequently on vertical runs, with no more than 48 cables in a loom. Cable ties should only be finger tight to avoid crushing the cables as this could affect the cables performance characteristics. Do not use cable tie guns or staple guns.





Cable trays should be used under false floors, if not, a suitable method of keeping the cable off the floor slab should be employed. This is because the lime in the concrete apparently reacts with the cables sheathing, and over time could damage the cable. I personally think the cable will have outlived its usefulness long before this could have any affect on the cables performance.





Care should be taken when pulling cables into trunking to avoid damage due to snagging. Trunking partitions should be used to separate the data cables from power, and bridges should be used where data cables have to cross the mains.





When terminating patch panels, cable looms should not exceed 48 cables. Each cable loom should then be tied in a tidy manner to a cable tray fitted the full length of the cabinet.





All terminating should be carried out according to the manufacturerís instructions and guidelines, and the standards for generic cabling systems. The cable sheath should be stripped back no more than 13mm from the point of termination and the twist rates should be maintained.





Cable ties MUST be fitted to the individual RJ45 modules in the patch panels and outlets to support each cable.





When terminating outlets, care must be taken to avoid damaging the copper cores when stripping back the outer sheathing.





Excessive amounts of cable should not be left in the outlet backbox. Care should be taken when attaching the outlet faceplate not to kink, trap or strain the cable.





Cable tray should be fitted in cabinets housing structured cabling to keep cable looms secure and tidy, and to provide room for any additional cabling.





All cabinets must be earthed to the 16th edition IEEE wiring regulations (British regulations). Where shielded cable is used the earth should be clean and where two cabinets are linked with a copper backbone (shielded or unshielded) a minimum of 10mm≤ earth wire should also be installed to cross bond the cabinets. Structured cabling can be pretty difficult if youíve never done it before. If you have questions, consult a professional.





Data Cottage. "Network Cabling Help." February 2011.


http://www.datacottage.com/nch/basics.htm

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